Earnings per share, diluted

Ratio calculated by dividing the consolidated net income (loss) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding. The calculation of the diluted earnings per share is based on the number of shares including subscription rights already exercised or those that can still be exercised.

Earnings retention

Non-distribution of a company's profits leading to different treatment for tax purposes than if profits were distributed.

Environmental Social Governance (ESG)

An acronym consisting of the keywords Environmental, Social and Governance. ESG stands for responsible enterprise management. The term has become particularly popular among investors and financial analysts and it reflects the recognition of non-financial considerations in the evaluation of an enterprise.

Equalisation reserve

Provision for the equalisation of substantial fluctuations in the claims experience of individual lines of business over several years.

Excess return on capital allocated (xRoCA)

Describes the IVC in relation to the allocated capital and shows the relative excess return generated above and beyond the weighted cost of capital.

Excess of loss (XL) treaty

cf. non-proportional reinsurance

Expense ratio

Administrative expenses (gross or net) in relation to the (gross or net) premium earned.


Level of danger inherent in a risk or portfolio of risks; this constitutes the basis for premium calculations in reinsurance.